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Conceptual Pathways By Which Climate Change Could Affect Health

CONCEPTUAL PATHWAYS FOR CLIMATE-RELATED HEALTH OUTCOMES
CLIMATE DRIVERS HAZARD EXPOSURES VULNERABLE GROUPS HEALTH RISKS
Heat

All Regions
Heat Events:
  • More frequent
  • Longer duration
  • More extreme
  • Elevated temperatures
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Children under age 5
  • Individuals with:
    • Diabetes
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Renal system disease
    • Outdoor workers
    • Outdoor recreation
  • Heat Exhaustion
  • Heat Stroke
  • Illness or death due to cardiovascular disease
  • Illness or death due to renal system failure
  • Poor Outdoor Air Quality:
  • increased generation of ozone
  • increased pollen production
  • longer pollen season
  • Elevated levels of ozone
  • Outdoor workers
  • Outdoor recreation
  • Individuals with:
  • Asthma
  • COPD
  • Lung Disease
  • Respiratory allergies
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Respiratory arrest/death
  • Exacerbation of asthma and other lung disease
  • Exacerbation of allergies and respiratory infections
  • Reduction of childhood lung function growth
  • Elevated levels of pollen
  • Individuals with allergies
  • Individuals with asthma
  • Exacerbation of asthma
  • More frequent allergy symptoms for longer periods of the year
  • Food-borne Illness Spoiled food from refrigeration failure in transport/storage
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Children under age 6
  • Pregnant women
  • Individuals with compromised immune systems
  • Gastrointestinal illness
  • Changes in patterns of salmonella growth
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Children under age 6
  • Pregnant women
  • Individuals with compromised immune systems
  • Salmonella infection
  • Heat and Precipitation Changes

    All Regions
    Disease Carrying Pests:
  • Longer exposure seasons
  • Expanding geographical ranges
  • Increased habitat
  • Higher breeding rates
  • Ticks
  • Outdoor workers
  • Outdoor recreation
  • Individuals with pets that go outdoors
  • Lyme Disease
  • Babesiosis
  • Mosquitoes
  • Outdoor workers
  • Outdoor recreation
  • Individuals over age 50
  • Individuals under age 15
  • West Nile Virus
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis
  • Water-borne illnesses Water or shellfish contaminated with Vibrio Vulnificus
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Children under age 6
  • Pregnant women
  • Individuals with compromised immune systems
  • Gastrointestinal illness
  • Contact with e Coli contaminated water from runoff, flooding or sewer overflow discharge
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Children under age 6
  • Pregnant women
  • Individuals with compromised immune systems
  • Gastrointestinal Illness
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Precipitation Changes

    All Regions
    Flooding Contaminated flood water (direct contact or flood-contaminated drinking water)
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Children under age 6
  • Pregnant women
  • Individuals with compromised immune systems
  • Gastrointestinal illness
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Debris/Physical hazards
    • Adolescents
    • Young adults
    • Utility workers
    • Rescue workers
  • Injury, drowning, electrocution
  • Relocation/Displacement
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Individuals with mobility limitations
  • Individuals under age 18
  • Individuals with low socioeconomic status
  • Individuals with low English language fluency
  • Non-white persons
  • Immigrants
  • Psychological stress
  • Financial loss stress
  • Loss of employment
  • Alcohol/drug abuse
  • Mold/mildew
  • Individuals with immune system or respiratory issues
  • Individuals with Allergies
  • Individuals with Asthma
  • Respiratory illness
  • Drought Water quality degradation
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Children under age 6
  • Pregnant women
  • Individuals with compromised immune systems
  • Gastrointestinal Illness
  • Heavy metal poisoning
  • Sinkholes/Land Subsidence
  • All people
  • Physical Injuries/death
  • Psychological stress
  • Loss of green spaces
  • All peple
  • Heat-related illnesses
  • Sea Level Rise

    EOHHS Regions
    3, 4, 5, 6

    EPRC Regions
    2, 3, 4, 11,
    12, 13
    Coastal Flooding Contaminated flood water
    Contaminated drinking water
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Children under age 6
  • Pregnant women
  • Individuals with compromised immune systems
  • Gastrointestinal illness
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Debris/Physical hazards
  • Adolescents
  • Young adults
  • Utility workers
  • Rescue workers
  • Injury, drowning, electrocution
  • Relocation/Displacement
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Individuals with mobility limitations
  • Individuals under age 18
  • Individuals with low socioeconomic status
  • Individuals with low English language fluency
  • Non-white persons
  • Immigrants
  • Psychological stress
  • Financial loss stress
  • Loss of employment
  • Alcohol/drug abuse
  • Mold/mildew
  • Individuals with immune system or respiratory issues
  • Individuals with Allergies
  • Individuals with Asthma
  • Allergic reactions
  • Respiratory illness
  • Salinization of land (loss of green spaces
  • Individuals susceptible to heat-related illnesses
  • Heat-related illnesses
  • Rising tide levels Mold/mildew around buildings
  • Individuals with immune system or respiratory issues
  • Individuals with Allergies
  • Individuals with Asthma
  • Allergic reactions
  • Respiratory illness
  • Salinization of land (loss of green spaces)
  • Individuals susceptible to heat-related illnesses
  • Heat-related illnesses
  • Infrastructure Loss Relocation/Displacement
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Individuals with mobility limitations
  • Individuals under age 18
  • Individuals with low socioeconomic status
  • Individuals with low English language fluency
  • Non-white persons
  • Immigrants
  • Psychological stress
  • Financial loss stress
  • Loss of employment
  • Alcohol/drug abuse
  • Sea Level Rise and
    Extreme Weather

    EOHHS Regions
    3, 4, 5, 6

    EPRC Regions
    2, 3, 4, 11,
    12, 13
    Large Tropical Storms:
    • Increased frequency
    • Increased precipitation on coast and inland
    • Storm surge hazard increased by rising sea levels
    Contaminated flood water
    Contaminated drinking water
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Children under age 6
  • Pregnant women
  • Individuals with compromised immune systems
  • Gastrointestinal illness
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Debris/Physical hazards
  • Adolescents
  • Young adults
  • Utility workers
  • Rescue workers
  • Injury, drowning, electrocution
  • Relocation/Displacement
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Individuals with mobility limitations
  • Individuals under age 18
  • Individuals with low socioeconomic status
  • Individuals with low English language fluency
  • Non-white persons
  • Immigrants
  • Psychological stress
  • Financial loss stress
  • Loss of employment
  • Mold/mildew
  • Individuals with immune system or respiratory issues
  • Individuals with Allergies
  • Individuals with Asthma
  • Allergic sensitization and reactions
  • Respiratory illness
  • Salinization of land (loss of green spaces
  • Individuals susceptible to heat-related illnesses
  • Heat-related illnesses
  • Severe winter storms
  • Increased precipitation on coast and inland
  • Storm surge hazard increased by rising sea levels
  • Contaminated flood water
    Contaminated drinking water
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Children under age 6
  • Pregnant women
  • Individuals with compromised immune systems
  • Gastrointestinal illness
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Debris/Physical hazards
  • Adolescents
  • Young adults
  • Utility workers
  • Rescue workers
  • Injury, drowning, electrocution
  • Relocation/Displacement
  • Individuals over age 65
  • Individuals with mobility limitations
  • Individuals under age 18
  • Individuals with low socioeconomic status
  • Individuals with low English language fluency
  • Non-white persons
  • Immigrants
  • Psychological stress
  • Financial loss stress
  • Loss of employment
  • Mold/mildew
  • Individuals with immune system or respiratory issues
  • Individuals with Allergies
  • Individuals with Asthma
  • Allergic reactions
  • Respiratory illness
  • Salinization of land (loss of green spaces
  • Individuals susceptible to heat-related illnesses
  • Heat-related illnesses
  • Extreme Weather

    All Regions
    Increased frequency of destructive ice storms Loss of electricity, heat
    • Individuals over age 65
    • Individuals living alone
    • Young children
  • Hypothermia
  • CO Poisoning
  • Debris/Physical hazards
  • Adolescents
  • Young adults
  • Utility workers
  • Rescue workers
  • Injuries from debris, downed wires, falling trees, falls, and motor vehicle accidents
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